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Implications for practice and research
There is a high incidence of long-term postpartum urinary incontinence associated with spontaneous vaginal delivery, with maternal factors such as excessive weight and increased age as additional risk factors.
Delivery exclusively by caesarean section confers an advantage against developing postpartum urinary incontinence in the early, intermediate and long term.
Therapeutic interventions should be studied to ascertain efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of such incontinence.
Whist postpartum urinary …
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.