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Cohort study
Persistent long-term urinary incontinence post parturition
  1. Ian K Walsh
  1. Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK
  1. Correspondence to: Dr Ian K Walsh, Centre for Medical Education, Mulhouse Building, Royal Victoria Hospital, Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6DP, UK; i.walsh{at}

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Implications for practice and research

  • There is a high incidence of long-term postpartum urinary incontinence associated with spontaneous vaginal delivery, with maternal factors such as excessive weight and increased age as additional risk factors.

  • Delivery exclusively by caesarean section confers an advantage against developing postpartum urinary incontinence in the early, intermediate and long term.

  • Therapeutic interventions should be studied to ascertain efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of such incontinence.


Whist postpartum urinary …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.