Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for recurrent otitis media, middle ear effusion, adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy, and outpatient referral if either parent smoked

OutcomeNumber of studiesPooled OR95% CI
*Based on a random effects model. All other ORs based on a fixed effects model.
†Not significant.
Recurrent otitis media7 (4 cohort, 2 case control, 1 survey)1.48*1.08 to 2.04
Middle ear effusion4 (3 cohort, 1 survey)1.381.23 to 1.55
Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy4 (2 case control, 2 surveys)2.071.82 to 2.35
Outpatient referral7 (1 cohort, 6 case control)1.21† 0.95 to 1.53