Rehabilitation (upper or lower extremity, or respiratory muscle exercise) v control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease*

Outcomes at 8 weeks to 6 monthsNumber of RCTs (n)Mean effect size (95% CI)Percentage of control patients with worse outcome (CI)†
*RCTs  =  randomised controlled trials. CI defined in glossary.
†Compared with the average patient in the treatment group.
Exercise capacity20 (979)0.71 (0.43 to 0.99)76% (67 to 84)
Shortness of breath12 (723)0.62 (0.26 to 0.91)73% (60 to 82)