Associations between soft drink consumption and various outcomes*

OutcomesNumber and type of studiesMean effect size (p value)
*Effect sizes ⩽0.10 were considered to be small, 0.25 to be medium, and ⩾0.40 to be large.
†Information provided by author.
Energy intake5 longitudinal studies0.24 (p<0.001)
4 long-term randomised controlled trials (consumption over 3–10 wks)0.30 (p<0.001)
12 short-term randomised controlled trials (consumption over a meal or single day)0.21 (p = 0.004)
Body weight{10}† longitudinal studies0.09 (p<0.001)
7 randomised controlled trials0.24 (p<0.001)
Milk intake5 longitudinal studies−0.21 (p<0.001)
Calcium intake5 longitudinal studies−0.13 (p = 0.004)