Various interventions v no intervention or placebo for breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
InterventionNumber of trials (n)Effects on breathlessness at 1 day to 1 year*
Acupuncture2 (62)Improved (1 trial, low-quality evidence)
Acupressure2 (75)Improved (low-quality evidence)
Distractive auditory stimuli (music)6 (135)No difference (4 trials)
Relaxation3 (72)No difference (2 trials)
Walking aids7 (201)Improved (5 trials)
Chest-wall vibration4 (51)Improved (3 trials)
Neuroelectrical muscle stimulation3 (50)Improved
Fan1 (17)No difference
Counselling1 (177)No difference
Breathing training2 (99)Improved (1 trial)
Case management1 (66)Improved
Psychotherapy2 (83)Improved (1 trial)
  • *Follow-up based on 18 studies.