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Adult nursing
Symptoms and signs as significant predictors of hospitalisation and mortality in patients with heart failure
  1. Mahdi Shamali
  1. Research Support and Finance Unit, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mahdi Shamali, Research Support and Finance Unit, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; mshamali62{at}

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Commentary on: Ali MR, Lam CSP, Strömberg A, et al. Symptoms and signs in patients with heart failure: association with 3-month hospitalisation and mortality. Heart. 2023 Dec 1. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2023-323295.

Implications for practice and research

  • In primary care consultations, symptoms reported by patients with heart failure (HF) could be valuable in identifying patients at risk of hospitalisation or death.

  • Further research needs to investigate how best can support patients to monitor and report symptoms and test new patient-centred prognostic models including HF signs and symptoms.


Hospitalisation in patients with HF is associated with impaired quality of life, increased mortality and excessive medical costs.1 Although HF signs and symptoms have been strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes2 and play a key role in the management of HF, their role has not been yet included in prognostic models for HF hospitalisation. Hence, Ali et al3 investigated the association between HF and non-HF signs and symptoms and …

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  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.