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Mental health
The usage of coercive measures in psychiatric units and its potential counter-therapeutic impact on outcome
  1. Akhtar Ebrahimi Ghassemi None
  1. Nursing Department, Hartwick College, Oneonta, New York, 13820, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Akhtar Ebrahimi Ghassemi None, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY 13820, USA; ghassemia{at}

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Commentary on: Duxbury J, Baker J, Downe S, et al. Minimising the use of physical restraint in acute mental health services: the outcome of a restraint reduction programme (‘REsTrain YOURSELF’). Int J Nurs Stud 2019;95:40–8.

Implications for practice and research

  • To improve the outcome of physical restraints programmes, a broader reduction prediction model must be created to capture contextual factors such as admission rate and level of violence influencing the use of coercive measure in the mental health settings.

  • Interventions such as ‘REsTrain YOURSELF’ empowers mental healthcare professionals and personnel in mental health settings to assume ownership of changes in their wards and engages service-users through informed practice and patient-centered approaches.


Coercive interventions including physical and chemical restraints are universally used to prevent psychiatric patients to harm themselves or others. However, the use of coercive …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.