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Systematic review
Age, comorbidity and functional status influence end-of-life decisions in critical illness, while nationality, ethnicity and clinician experience influence the agressiveness of medical care
  1. Ronald L Hickman Jr
  1. Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  1. Correspondence to Ronald L Hickman, Jr
    Case Western Reserve University, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, 2120 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH 44106-4904, USA; ronald.hickman{at}

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Implications for practice

  • Critical care nurses are more likely to recommend intensive end-of-life (EOL) care compared with physicians who routinely work in critical care settings.

  • Patients with advanced age, comorbidity and limited functional status are less likely to use technologically intensive EOL care.

Implications for research

  • Further evaluation of the complex interactions of factors associated with critically ill patients, family members and healthcare professionals are needed to guide the development of decision support strategies at EOL.

  • Novel decision support strategies should consider tailored approaches to overcome patient and healthcare professional factors and …

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