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Mechanical ventilation with heated humidifiers or with heat and moisture exchangers with microbiological filters did not reduce ventilator associated pneumonia in adults

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Q Does the method of airway humidification (heat and moisture exchangers with microbiological filters [HMEFs] or heated humidifiers [HHs]) affect the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in adults?


Embedded ImageDesign:

randomised controlled trial.

Embedded ImageAllocation:


Embedded ImageBlinding:

blinded (microbiologists confirming VAP).

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

up to 28 days of mechanical ventilation.

Embedded ImageSetting:

5 intensive care units (ICUs) in 2 university affiliated teaching hospitals in France.

Embedded ImagePatients:

370 patients >18 years of age (mean age 55 y, 70% men) who required mechanical ventilation (eg, nasotracheal, orotracheal, or tracheostomy tube) for >48 hours. Exclusion criteria were previous ventilation for >24 hours, contraindications to HHs (eg, active …

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  • For correspondence: Dr L Brochard, Reanimation Medicale, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil, France. laurent.brochard{at}

  • Source of funding: Fisher and Paykel Healthcare provided equipment.