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Review: high dose vitamin E supplementation is associated with increased all cause mortality

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Q Does vitamin E supplementation increase all cause mortality? Does a dose-response relation exist between vitamin E and all cause mortality?


Embedded ImageData sources:

Medline (1966 to August 2004), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and personal files of the investigators.

Embedded ImageStudy selection and assessment:

randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared vitamin E supplementation (alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals) with a control or placebo group in men or non-pregnant women, study duration and follow up were >1 year, and ⩾10 deaths occurred.

Embedded ImageOutcomes:

all cause mortality.


19 RCTs (n = 135 967, mean age range 47–84 y) met the selection …

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  • For correspondence: Dr E R Miller 3rd, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.

  • Sources of funding: in part, Instituto de Salud Carlos III.