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Behavioural training plus biofeedback or verbal feedback did not differ from self administered behavioural training in urge incontinence

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QUESTION: In community dwelling older women with urge incontinence, is behavioural training (BT) plus biofeedback or verbal feedback more effective than self administered BT for reducing the frequency of urge incontinence?


Randomised (unclear allocation concealment), unblinded, controlled trial with 10 weeks of follow up.


University outpatient continence clinic in the US.


222 ambulatory, mentally competent, community dwelling women 55–92 years of age (mean age 65 y) who had persistent (for ≥3 mo) urge incontinence or mixed incontinence with urge as the predominant pattern that occurred ≥2 times per week (on average) with urodynamic evidence of bladder dysfunction. Exclusion criteria included continual leakage and post-void residual urine volume >150 ml. Follow up was 88%.


Patients were allocated to BT plus biofeedback …

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  • Source of funding: National Institute on Aging.

  • For correspondence: Dr K L Burgio, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA. kburgio{at}

  • A modified version of this abstract appears in ACP Journal Club.