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Digoxin increased risk of death in women, but not men, with heart failure

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QUESTION: Does the effect of digoxin therapy differ in men and women with heart failure (HF) and depressed left ventricular systolic function?


Randomised {allocation concealed}*, blinded ({participants, healthcare providers,} and data collectors), placebo controlled trial with up to 48 months of follow up.


302 clinical centres in the US and Canada.


5281 men (median age 64 y, 87% white, 30% New York Heart Association [NYHA] class ≥III) and 1519 women (median age 66 y, 81% white, 40.6% NYHA class ≥III) who had clinically confirmed HF (ie, current or past clinical symptoms or signs or radiographic evidence of pulmonary congestion) and an ejection fraction …

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  • Information provided by author.

  • Source of funding: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

  • For correspondence: no information available.