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Local warming of the hand and lower arm improved successful peripheral venous cannulation and reduced insertion time

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  • For correspondence: Dr R Lenhardt, Outcomes Research Institute and Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.rainerlenhardt{at}

  • Sources of funding: National Institutes of Health; Drown Foundation, Los Angeles, CA; Commonwealth of Kentucky Research Challenge Trust Fund, Louisville, KY; Anniversary Fund of the Austrian National Bank. Thermamed, GmbH, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany donated the warming mitt and Mallinckrodt, St Louis, MO donated the thermocouples and thermometers.