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Listening to music during ambulatory ophthalmic surgery reduced blood pressure, heart rate, and perceived stress

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QUESTION: Does listening to self selected music during ambulatory ophthalmic surgery reduce blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and perceived levels of stress in elderly patients?


Cluster randomised (unclear allocation concealment), unblinded, controlled trial with follow up to the postoperative period.


A university medical centre in Buffalo, New York, USA.


40 patients who were 51–88 years of age (mean age 76 y, 75% women) and were having ophthalmic surgery (all but 2 were having surgery for removal of cataracts). 21 patients had drug controlled hypertension, and drug treatment was not discontinued on the day of surgery. Follow up was complete.


Surgeons (n=2) were allocated to music (20 patients) or …

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  • Source of funding: US Food and Drug Administration; music and headphones supplied by Digital Music Express.

  • For correspondence: Dr K M Allen, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Millard Fillmore Hospital, 3 Gates Circle, Buffalo, New York 14209, USA. Fax +1 716 887 4382.