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Combined permethrin (PER) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was better than PER alone but not better than TMP/SMX alone for treating head lice infestation in children

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QUESTION: Is combined permethrin (PER) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) better than either PER or TMP/SMX alone for treating head lice infestation (HLI)?


Randomised (unclear allocation concealment), blinded (unclear), controlled trial with 4 weeks of follow up.


3 private paediatric and family practices in San Joaquin County, California, USA.


115 children who were 2–13 years of age (70% girls) and had HLI (confirmed by inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice and nymphal stage or eggs). Children with hypersensitivity to TMP/SMX or 1% PER, or a history of parental non-compliance or neglect were excluded. 97% of children completed follow up.


For all groups, parents were instructed to wash the child's hair with regular …

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  • * p Values calculated from data in article.

  • Source of funding: not stated.

  • For correspondence: Dr R B Hipolito, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, TB 193, Davis, CA 95616, USA. rbhipo{at}