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Self hypnotic relaxation combined with structured attention reduced the discomfort of invasive medical procedures

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QUESTION: Do self hypnotic relaxation and structured attention reduce discomfort and adverse effects in patients having percutaneous vascular and renal radiological procedures?


Randomised {allocation concealed}*, unblinded, controlled trial.


An interventional radiology division of a university medical centre in the US.


241 patients who were 18–92 years of age (median age 56 y, 53% women) and were referred for percutaneous transcatheter diagnostic and therapeutic peripheral vascular and renal interventions. Exclusion criteria included severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psychosis, intolerance of midazolam or fentanyl, and pregnancy. Follow up was complete.


Patients were allocated to self hypnotic relaxation plus structured attention (n=82), structured attention alone (n=80), or standard treatment of intravenous conscious sedation (n=79). A manual was used to standardise treatment in each group. In the structured attention group and the self hypnosis group, …

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  • Sources of funding: National Institute of Mental Health and Office for Alternative Medicine.

  • For correspondence: Dr E V Lang, Department of Radiology, West Campus CC308, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Fax +1 617 754 2545.

  • A modified version of this abstract appears in Evidence-Based Mental Health.

  • * Information provided by author.