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Review: both Gram stain and urine dipstick analysis were accurate in diagnosing urinary tract infection in children

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QUESTION: How accurate are rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI) in children?

Data sources

Studies were identified by searching Medline (1966–98) using the terms urine, urinalysis, pyuria, reagent strips, bacteriuria, urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis, and terms related to a paediatric population. Reference lists of relevant studies were scanned, and experts were contacted.

Study selection

Published English language studies were selected if they reported original data; ≥1 of urine dipstick (leukocyte esterase, nitrite, or both), Gram stain of unspun urine, or enhanced urinalysis tests were used in the diagnosis of UTI; children ≤12 years of age were included or evaluated separately; urine culture was …

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  • Source of funding: Maternal and Child Health Bureau, US Department of Health and Human Services.

  • For correspondence: Dr M H Gorelick, Division of Emergency Medicine, A I duPont Hospital for Children, 1600 Rockland Road, Wilmington, DE 19899, USA. Fax +1 302 651 4227.