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We need more evidence to inform community-based health services for women, and transgender and nonbinary people who experience incarceration
  1. Kate McLeod,
  2. Fiona G. Kouyoumdjian
  1. Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kate McLeod; kate.mcleod{at}

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Commentary on: Paynter M, Heggie C, Low C, McKibbon S, Martin-Misener R. Community-based models of health care for women, trans and nonbinary people released from prisons: An international scoping review with implications for Canada. J Clin Nurs. 2023 Jul;32(13-14):3277-3294. doi: 10.1111/jocn.16464. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Implications for practice and research

  • Women, transgender and non-binary people who experience incarceration often have complex healthcare needs and require dynamic, trauma-informed care in the community.

  • Research is needed to understand how to address the diverse health needs of women, transgender and non-binary people leaving prison.


On any given day, approximately 740 000 women and girls1 and an unknown number of transgender, non-binary and gender diverse people are incarcerated globally. Intersecting social and structural factors impact incarceration and healthcare experiences, requiring community-based interventions that address the specific needs of women, transgender and …

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  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was first published online. The title and section have been updated.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.