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Nursing issues
Model of moral agency that encompasses nurses’ and midwives’ perceptions of off-duty emergency response
  1. Sandra Richardson
  1. Faculty of Health, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sandra Richardson, Health Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 8041, New Zealand; sandra.richardson{at}

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Commentary on: Crouchman C, Griffiths L, Harris R, Henderson K. Nurses' and midwives' experiences and views about responding to out of work emergencies: A constructivist grounded theory study. J Adv Nurs 2022;78(6):1755-1772. doi: 10.1111/jan.15146.

Implications for practice and research

  • Nurses and midwives often face emergency situations outside working hours and locations where first aid may be required.

  • Further research is needed into the preparation, understanding and support of practitioners responding to such situations.


Nurses and midwives who face emergency situations outside of the work environment, in off-duty times, face challenging decisions. There is often an expectation that they can and will be able to provide first aid services competently, despite this being a skill set not routinely updated as part of their professional work life or whose implications in terms of medicolegal and professional impacts are well understood. The authors explore registered nurses’ …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.