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Adult nursing
Adoption of a biopsychosocial approach to musculoskeletal pain faces barriers at the micro, meso and macro levels
  1. Bethan Jones1,2,
  2. Mwidimi Ndosi2,3
  1. 1 School of Healthcare Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
  2. 2 School of Health and Social Wellbeing, University of the West of England Bristol, Bristol, UK
  3. 3 Academic Rheumatology Unit, University Hospitals Bristol and Weston NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mwidimi Ndosi, School of Health and Social Wellbeing, University of the West of England Bristol, Bristol, UK; mwidimi.ndosi{at}

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Commentary on: Ng W, Slater H, Starcevich C et al. Barriers and enablers influencing healthcare professionals’ adoption of a biopsychosocial approach to musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis. Pain 2021; 162:2154–85. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002217

Implications for practice and research

  • Training for healthcare professionals is needed to develop their competences.

  • Research is needed to aim understanding of patient-related factors to enable a meaningful adoption of biopsychosocial approaches to pain management.


The biopsychosocial model of care can be defined as a clinical approach that systematically considers biological, psychological and social factors and their complex interactions in understanding health, illness and health care delivery.1 To provide holistic care in long-term conditions, the biopsychosocial approach to care is recommended.2 3 However, there is a gap between the evidence supporting this approach in pain management and its …

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  • Twitter @_Bethan_Jones_, @ndosie

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.