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Adult nursing
Baseline heart failure symptoms have a direct and predictive mediator effect on health-related quality of life in patients with heart failure
  1. Rachel Kennedy
  1. Coronary Care Unit, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
  1. Correspondence to Rachel Kennedy, Coronary Care Unit, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick V94 F858, Ireland; rachel.staunton{at}

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Commentary on: Heo S, Moser DK, Lennie TA, et al. Prediction of Heart Failure Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life at 12 Months From Baseline Modifiable Factors in Patients With Heart Failure. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2020;35(2),116–125.doi: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000642.

Implications for practice and research

  • Heart failure (HF) management, which targets multidimensional, modifiable predictors such as New York Heart Association class, depressive symptoms and self-care, may improve HF symptoms and health-related quality of life in the long term.

  • Further longitudinal studies are required in order to establish the nature of the relationship between the modifiable predictors of HF symptoms and how they change over time.


Heart failure (HF) is a chronic condition which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, with patients experiencing a major symptom burden and …

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  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.