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Women’s health and midwifery
Behavioural and pharmacological interventions are more effective than no treatment for urinary incontinence outcomes in women
  1. Nicole Zhang
  1. Nursing, Hartwick College, Oneonta, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Professor Nicole Zhang, Nursing, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY13820, USA; zhangn{at}

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Commentary on: Balk EM, Rofeberg VN, Adam, GP, et al. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments for urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of clinical outcomes. Ann Intern Med 2019 Mar 19. doi: 10.7326/M18-3227.

Implications for practice and research

  • Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to treat urinary incontinence (UI) can effectively be implemented for non-pregnant women with UI in order to improve UI outcomes.

  • Future research can examine barriers to implementation of evidence-based interventions for UI as well as educational programmes for nurses to improve knowledge and UI outcomes.


UI is a prevalent condition across the globe. UI is pervasive in all care settings and communities.1 There has been significant research regarding non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions alike that are efficacious in treating UI.2 3 While this is the case, there have …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.