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Cohort study
Frailty significantly increases the risk of fractures among middle-aged and older people
  1. Gotaro Kojima
  1. Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London Research, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Gotaro Kojima, Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London Research, London, NW3 2PF, UK; gotarokojima{at}

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Commentary on: Chen KW, Chang SF, Lin PL. Frailty as a predictor of future fracture in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2017;14:282–93.

Implications for practice and research

  • All healthcare providers including professional nurses who take care of older people should be aware of, and prepared for, increased risks of fractures according to frailty.

  • Future research should be focused on developing evidence-based interventions to reduce fracture risks in frail older people.


Older people are a heterogeneous population that often has multiple medical problems, disabilities and comorbidities with different patterns and severity. It is therefore challenging to provide optimal care for older patients and meet their healthcare needs. The term ‘frailty’ has gained increasing attention and interest from healthcare providers and researchers. It has emerged as a significant concept to assess overall health status of older people. Because frailty involves age-related deficit accumulation and depleted physiological reserve across multiple body systems, frail individuals are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality as well as other various negative health outcomes than fit …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.