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Systematic review with meta-analysis
Psychological treatment is one of the several important components to the effective management of postpartum depression
  1. Cindy-Lee Dennis
  1. University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to: Professor Cindy-Lee Dennis, Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON M5T1P8, Canada; cindylee.dennis{at}

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Implications for practice and research

  • Psychological treatments can be delivered in primary care settings to reduce postpartum depression, with evidence suggesting that these interventions may also decrease high levels of anxiety, stress and marital dissatisfaction.

  • To significantly improve clinical outcomes, future research should examine new approaches to the systematic management of depression across the perinatal period and include important comorbidities such as anxiety.


Perinatal mental health is a leading public health issue with significant economic cost to women and their families.1 In many countries, primary care is the main source of contact in the healthcare system, and the preferred treatment setting, for women with perinatal …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.