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Increased calcium intake was associated with decreased risk of ischaemic heart disease mortality in postmenopausal women

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Question Is intake of calcium, vitamin D, or milk products associated with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in postmenopausal women?


Prospective cohort study of women in the Iowa Women's Health Study with 8 years of follow up.


Iowa, USA.


34 486 women who were 55-69 years of age. Women were excluded if they had IHD at baseline, were premenopausal, did not complete ≥30 items on the food frequency questionnaire, or had implausibly high or low daily energy intake scores.

Assessment of risk factors

Women completed postal questionnaires on known and suspected risk factors for cardiovascular …

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  • Source of funding: National Cancer Institute.

  • For correspondence: Dr R M Bostick, Division of Population Sciences, South Carolina Cancer Center, University of South Carolina, 15 Richland Medical Park, Suite 301, Columbia, SC 29203, USA. Fax +1 803 434 7529.