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Randomised trial with 3 months follow up.
Gynaecological practices at 2 academic health science centres in southeastern USA.
204 women ≥45 years of age (mean age 61 y, 92% white) who were living in the community, ambulatory, mentally competent, and able to toilet independently; had urine loss ≥once/week; and had urodynamic evidence of genuine stress incontinence, detrusor instability, or both. Exclusion criteria were reversible causes of urinary incontinence, uncontrolled …
Sources of funding: National Institute of Aging; National Institutes of Health.
For correspondence: Dr J F Wyman, School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, 6–101 Weaver-Densford Hall, 308 Harvard Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Fax +1 612 626 2359.