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Implications for practice and research
Pregnant women or women planning to become pregnant may benefit from substituting some animal protein with vegetable protein (including nuts) and perhaps replacing some red meat with fish and poultry.
Midwives can incorporate this nutritional advice into prenatal care.
The role of advanced glycation end products and influence on diabetes risk is a research priority.
Intervention studies are required to assess the effects of reducing and substituting some forms of meat before and during pregnancy.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can result in significant adverse outcomes for mother and child, both in the short-term and long-term …
Competing interests Part of Philippa Middleton's research involves assessing interventions for preventing and treating gestational and type 2 diabetes.