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Cohort study
Daily calcium intake in excess of 1400 mg is associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in women
  1. Howard D Sesso,
  2. Lu Wang
  1. Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  1. Correspondence to : Dr Howard D Sesso
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Avenue East, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02215, USA; hsesso{at}

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Implications for practice and research

  • Greater calcium intake is encouraged for bone health, but has unclear cardiovascular consequences.

  • In a large cohort of Swedish women, total calcium intake of <600 or ≥1400 mg/day was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (TM) and cardiovascular disease mortality (CVDM).

  • It is important to emphasise adequate dietary calcium intake in patients, with calcium supplementation only when necessary.


Sufficient calcium intake is required for bone health. Recommended daily calcium increases with age, reaching 1500 mg/day by the age of 65 years. Intake of calcium-rich foods tends to be inadequate, with a large proportion of predominantly older women taking high-dose calcium supplements1 to increase the …

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  • Competing interests None.