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Cohort study
Greater intake of Western fast food among Singaporean adults is associated with increased risk of diabetes and heart-disease-related death
  1. Kiyah J Duffey
  1. Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
  1. Correspondence to: Kiyah J Duffey
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1807 Asher Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA; kduffey{at}

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Commentary on: OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text

Implications for practice and research

  • Adverse associations between fast food consumption and cardiovascular health are also observed in an Eastern population.

  • The role that Western dietary behaviours play in affecting health in transitional societies needs to be articulated and addressed.


Consumption of fast food has increased over recent decades, accounting for as much as 40% of daily energy among certain subgroups of the US population,1 which is typically higher in total energy, saturated fats, sodium, carbohydrates and added sugars,2 ,3 and have been adversely associated with numerous health outcomes including obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.4 , …

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  • Competing interests None.