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Systematic review
Review of variable quality trials finds that warming local anaesthetic to body temperature reduces self-reported pain of infiltration by 11 mm on a 100 mm rating scale
  1. Jawad Sultan
  1. Orthopaedic Training Rotation North Western Deanery NHS North West Manchester, UK
  1. Correspondence to Jawad Sultan
    ST4 Trauma and Orthopaedics Royal Oldham Hospital Rochdale Road, Oldham, Manchester OL1 2JH, UKjsultan{at}

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Implications for practice and research

  • Warming local anaesthetic solution to body temperature reduces pain from infiltration.

  • In places where local anaesthetic is frequently used, for example in accident and emergency, warming local anaesthetic before infiltrating it is a simple and inexpensive way to reduce further pain in patients, using readily available equipment.

  • Future research should investigate the combined effect of warming and buffering the local anaesthetic solutions on the pain of its infiltration.


Local anaesthetic is frequently used in emergency settings as well as in elective surgical and dental procedures. The pain associated with injecting the local anaesthetic is not only due to the needle stick, but is also due to the …

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  • Competing interests None.