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Systematic review with meta-analysis
The Otago strength and balance exercise programme lowers the risk of death and falls in the older people at 12 months
  1. Lesley Day
  1. Monash Injury Research Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Lesley Day
    Monash Injury Research Institute, Building 70, Monash University, Clayton, 3800 VIC, Australia;{at}

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Implications for practice and research

  • The Otago exercise programme (OEP) can be recommended by nurses for independently ambulant community-dwelling older people, particularly those 80 years and above.

  • Community health nurses could consider undertaking training, where available, to deliver the OEP.

  • Older people considering the OEP should be advised of the kinds of adverse events they might experience and how these should be managed should they arise.

  • Providing ongoing encouragement and examination of those undertaking the OEP will be important in securing the exercise dose required for falls prevention benefits.

  • Future research of the factors associated with exercise compliance and motivating factors for home exercise programmes will assist in maximising the benefits of these programmes.


Falls are a significant threat to the safety, health and independence of our older citizens.1 Falls are relatively common, with about one-third of people aged 65 years and above experiencing at least one fall annually.1 ,2 A constellation of adverse health outcomes can follow, including serious injury; increased mortality risk; erosion of overall health status, confidence, mobility and independence; and decreased quality of life.1 ,2

There is robust evidence that exercise can reduce falls particularly among community-dwelling older people, with the types of exercise and minimum dose having been specified.2 ,3 One …

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  • Competing interests None.