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Systematic review
No clear evidence that hypnotherapy for smoking cessation is more effective in the long term than no treatment or other interventions
  1. Timothy P Carmody
  1. San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Timothy P Carmody
    University of California, San Francisco, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA; Timothy.Carmody{at}

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Hypnosis is a popular method used by many smokers to quit smoking. The results of a recent survey study1 indicated that hypnosis was among the most commonly used complimentary and alternative medicine treatments for tobacco cessation. Survey respondents generally considered hypnosis to be effective and expressed strong interest in its future use for smoking cessation. Although hypnosis has been claimed to be effective in clinical reports and uncontrolled studies, the evidence for its efficacy derived from controlled studies remains inconclusive. The efficacy of hypnosis for smoking cessation has been difficult to determine because of the variability in the types and content of hypnotic suggestions; number and frequency of treatment sessions; presence …

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  • Competing interests None.