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Systematic review with meta analysis
Telephone follow-up does not significantly improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes overall, but more intensive programmes may have an effect
  1. Holly Blake
  1. Division of Nursing, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Holly Blake
    Division of Nursing, B Floor (South Block Link), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2HA, UK; holly.blake{at}

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Implications for practice and research

Implications for nursing practice

  • Telephone follow-up is more effective at improving glycaemic control if it includes a more interactive element based on the level of clinical need.

  • Such models could be important in helping to manage the increasing demand for diabetes care.

Implications for nursing research

  • Research is needed which will help to determine the added value of the psychological element of the intervention (eg, motivational interviewing (MI)).

  • Understanding more about the potential influence of call provider skill and expertise (professional vs non-professional) is needed to determine the optimum level of training required.

  • Cost-benefit analysis is recommended.


Diabetes is becoming increasingly common worldwide, representing a huge public health problem. In the UK, diabetes is thought to affect approximately 2.8 million people overall, and it is estimated that there may be a further 850 000 people with undiagnosed diabetes. Over 90% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and there are an increasing number of younger adults with T2DM than previously, with the condition now developing also in children. T2DM is complex in causation and complicated to manage since it is associated with significant complications affecting the eye, the nervous system and the kidney. There is a substantial increase in risk of cardiovascular disease and a significant reduction in life expectancy. Achieving optimal …

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  • Competing interests None.