Article Text

Download PDFPDF
A combination of 4 health behaviours was associated with increasing risk of stroke

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


Does the combined effect of 4 health behaviours (smoking, physical activity, alcohol use, and fruit and vegetable intake) affect the risk of stroke in community-dwelling people?



cohort study with a mean 11.5-year follow-up (Norfolk component of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer [EPIC-Norfolk]).


general practices in the UK.


20 040 people who were 40–79 years of age (mean age 58 y, 55% women) with no known myocardial infarction or stroke.

Risk factors:

smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable intake. Participants were assigned 1 point each for being a non-smoker, being physically active, consuming alcohol moderately (1–14 units/wk), and consuming ⩾5 servings of vegetables and fruit per day (blood concentration of vitamin C ⩾50 μmol/l).


incident stroke (hospital record linkage and death certificate data). Results were adjusted …

View Full Text


  • Source of funding Cancer Research UK; Medical Research Council; Stroke Association; British Heart Foundation; Research Into Ageing; Academy of Medical Sciences; Wellcome Trust.