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Review: distraction, hypnosis, and combined cognitive-behavioural interventions reduce needle related pain and distress in children and adolescents

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Q In children and adolescents, do cognitive-behavioural psychological interventions reduce pain and distress associated with needle related procedures?


Embedded ImageData sources:

Medline, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Dissertation Abstracts International (all up to 2005); Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2005); bibliographies of relevant studies; and researchers.

Embedded ImageStudy selection and assessment:

randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that had ⩾5 participants per group and compared cognitive and behavioural psychological interventions with a control or comparison condition in children or adolescents 2–19 years of age who were healthy (or had chronic or transitory illnesses) and were receiving needle related medical …

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  • For correspondence: MsL Uman, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. luman{at}

  • Sources of funding: National Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, Nova Scotia Health Research Foundation, and Pain in Child Health.