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The combination of smoking and heavy drinking increased the risk of chronic kidney disease

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Q Do smoking and drinking alcohol increase the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle aged and elderly people?


Embedded ImageDesign:

prospective cohort study with 5 year follow up.

Embedded ImageSetting:

population based study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, USA.

Embedded ImageParticipants:

3392 men and women 43–86 years of age (mean age 62 y) who participated in the baseline and 5 year examinations and had serum creatinine measurements taken at both time points. People with CKD at baseline were excluded.

Embedded ImageRisk factors:

cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption (⩾4 alcoholic drinks/d) at baseline. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, sex, education, body mass index, current use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hypertension status, diabetes status, …

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  • For correspondence: Dr R Klein, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA. kleinr{at}

  • Source of funding: National Institutes of Health and Research to Prevent Blindness.