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Vaccinating infants with a wide long needle achieved comparable immune response and reduced local reactions compared with a narrow short needle

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Q Is vaccination of infants with a wide long needle equivalent or superior to a narrow short needle for immune response and local reactions?


Embedded ImageDesign:

randomised controlled non-inferiority trial.

Embedded ImageAllocation:


Embedded ImageBlinding:

blinded (data entry clerks and laboratory staff).

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

3 to 4.5 months.

Embedded ImageSetting:

18 general practices in 2 primary care trusts in the UK.

Embedded ImageParticipants:

696 healthy infants due to receive their first immunisation (mean age 62 d, mean weight 5300 g, 52% boys). Exclusion criteria were <37 weeks gestation, birth weight <2500 g, or treatments or conditions that could bias evaluation of immune response.

Embedded ImageIntervention:

vaccination with a 23 gauge, 25 mm needle (wide long needle, n = 240), a 25 gauge, 16 mm needle (narrow short needle, n = 230), or a 25 gauge, 25 mm needle (narrow long needle, …

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  • For correspondence: MsL Diggle, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. linda.diggle{at}

  • Sources of funding: National Health Service Executive South East and Becton Dickinson.