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Audit and feedback and educational outreach did not differ from printed educational materials for improving community nursing practice

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Q Does audit and feedback (AF) and educational outreach (EO) improve community nursing practice and outcomes in patients with urinary incontinence (UI)?


Embedded ImageDesign:

cluster randomised controlled trial.

Embedded ImageAllocation:


Embedded ImageBlinding:

blinded {patients, data collectors, and data analysts}.*

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

6 months.

Embedded ImageSetting:

157 local family practices in the counties of East Midlands, West Midlands, and Northwest Anglia, UK.

Embedded ImageParticipants:

176 community nurses (district nurses and specialist health visitors) attached to ⩾1 of the family practices and 1078 patients ⩾16 years of age (83% women) who had UI; patients with permanent indwelling urethral or suprapubic urinary catheters were excluded.

Embedded ImageIntervention:

38 practices (41 nurses, 276 patients) were allocated to AF, which comprised personal feedback sent by post to nurses on performance, emphasising good practice and suggestions for improvement; anonymous aggregated feedback on the performance …

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  • For correspondence: Professor F M Cheater, School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. f.m.cheater{at}

  • Source of funding: UK NHS Research and Development program.