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Higher maternal age at birth was associated with increased self sufficiency of children at age 27 to 33 years

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Question Is the age of inner city mothers a determinant of their children's self sufficiency at age 27–33 years?


Cohort study with follow up of >30 years (Pathways to Adulthood Study and the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study).


Inner city of Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


1758 adults (82% black, 54% women) who were born from 1960–5 and were assessed at birth, 7 or 8 years later, and in 1994. 1552 mothers of the participants were also included.

Assessment of risk factors

Maternal age at first birth (<20 y, 20–24 y, and ≥25 y), parity, race, sex of the child, maternal education, poverty status at birth including financial independence of public support, marital and employment status, week of pregnancy when prenatal care was started, gestational age …

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  • Sources of funding: W T Grant Foundation; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Johns Hopkins Population Center.

  • For article reprint: Dr J B Hardy, 550 North Broadway, Suite 508, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Fax +1 410 614 1885.