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Postmenopausal hormone use was associated with decreased total mortality

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To determine whether use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was associated with total mortality.


A nested case control study of participants in the Nurses' Health Study.


Community based study in the USA.


121 700 nurses (all women), who were aged 30–55 years at baseline, completed questionnaires in 1976 and every 2 years until 1994. Women were included in this analysis if they reported being postmenopausal. Exclusion criteria were reported cardiovascular disease or cancer before menopause. 3637 women died during follow up and were considered to be the case patients. All but 50 women who died were matched with 10 control women who were alive either at the date of the case patient's death or diagnosis of the fatal illness (n=34 625).

Assessment of risk factors

HRT use was taken from …

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  • Source of funding: National Institutes of Health.

  • For article reprint: Dr F Grodstein, Channing Laboratory, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Fax +1 617 525 2008.