Risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip for singleton births

Risk factorOdds ratioConfidence interval
Increased risk
Maternal age 25–29 years1.461.09 to 1.96
Maternal age 30–34 years1.711.26 to 2.32
Maternal age ≥ 35 years1.721.22 to 2.44
Parity 02.191.83 to 2.62
Parity 11.291.07 to 1.56
Breech presentation and caesarean delivery10.08.58 to 11.7
Emergency caesarean delivery13.210.7 to 16.3
Elective caesarean delivery7.566.27 to 9.12
Breech presentation and delivery17.212.8 to 23.0
Female sex3.943.41 to 4.56
Living in a metropolitan area1.451.23 to 1.69
Living in an outer metropolitan area1.861.41 to 2.46
Presence of oligohydramnios3.971.69 to 9.35
Birth weight 4000–4499 g1.551.26 to 1.91
Birth weight ≥ 4500 g2.671.81 to 3.94
Gestation 41 weeks1.261.05 to 1.51
Gestation ≥ 42 weeks1.481.02 to 2.13
Decreased risk
Birth weight < 2000 g0.300.12 to 0.77
Birth weight 2000–2499 g0.520.31 to 0.88
Gestation < 37 weeks0.420.25 to 0.69
Gestation 37 weeks0.590.40 to 0.86
Gestation 38 weeks0.800.66 to 0.98