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Implications for practice and research
Most non-pharmacological methods of pain management are non-invasive and appear to provide benefits, and are safe for the mother and baby.
In future trials, usual care needs to be more clearly defined and relevant outcomes such as measures of pain need to be assessed.
Caregivers need to gain expertise in the use of non-pharmacological pain relief techniques so that they can be better integrated into practice within hospital settings.
Women experience pain of differing intensities during labour and this pain intensity can be affected by many physiological and psychosocial factors. Most women require some form of pain relief and pain management, including pharmacological …
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