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Implications for practice and research
■ Warming local anaesthetic solution to body temperature reduces pain from infiltration.
■ In places where local anaesthetic is frequently used, for example in accident and emergency, warming local anaesthetic before infiltrating it is a simple and inexpensive way to reduce further pain in patients, using readily available equipment.
■ Future research should investigate the combined effect of warming and buffering the local anaesthetic solutions on the pain of its infiltration.
Local anaesthetic is frequently used in emergency settings as well as in elective surgical and dental procedures. The pain associated with injecting the local anaesthetic is not only due to the needle stick, but is also …
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