Evid Based Nurs 9:105 doi:10.1136/ebn.9.4.105
  • Treatment

Delivery of 100%, 40%, and blow-by humidity did not differ for change in croup scores in children with moderate croup

 Q In children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with moderate croup, what is the relative effectiveness of 100% humidity with optimally sized water particles, 40% humidity, and humidity delivered by the blow-by technique?



randomised controlled trial (RCT).




blinded (healthcare providers, data collectors, and {data analysts}*).

GraphicFollow up period:

30 and 60 minutes.


ED at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


140 children 3 months to 10 years of age (mean age 25 mo, 69% boys) who presented with croup and had Westley croup scores ⩾2 out of 17 after a 30 minute rest period. Exclusion criteria were need for immediate nebulised epinephrine or intubation, potential alternative cause of stridor, history of chronic pulmonary disease other than asthma, coexistent systemic disease, previous intubation, duration of current illness >1 week, use of systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids in the previous 48 hours or epinephrine in the previous 4 hours, or non-English speaking caregivers.


46 children were allocated …

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