Evid Based Nurs 9:82 doi:10.1136/ebn.9.3.82
  • Treatment

Mechanical ventilation with heated humidifiers or with heat and moisture exchangers with microbiological filters did not reduce ventilator associated pneumonia in adults

 Q Does the method of airway humidification (heat and moisture exchangers with microbiological filters [HMEFs] or heated humidifiers [HHs]) affect the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in adults?



randomised controlled trial.




blinded (microbiologists confirming VAP).

GraphicFollow up period:

up to 28 days of mechanical ventilation.


5 intensive care units (ICUs) in 2 university affiliated teaching hospitals in France.


370 patients >18 years of age (mean age 55 y, 70% men) who required mechanical ventilation (eg, nasotracheal, orotracheal, or tracheostomy tube) for >48 hours. Exclusion criteria were previous ventilation for >24 hours, contraindications to HHs (eg, active tuberculosis) or to HMEFs (eg, haemoptysis or severe hypothermia), admission after cardiac arrest, enrolment in other clinical trials, or early decision to limit …

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