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Q In overweight or obese adults, are dietary/lifestyle, pharmacological, and surgical interventions effective for inducing long term weight loss?
Medline (1966 to September 2003), HealthSTAR (1975 to September 2003), Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1990 to September 2003), bibliographies of relevant articles, and researchers in the field.
Study selection and assessment:
randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies that had an English abstract and investigated a prespecified dietary/lifestyle, pharmacological, or surgical weight loss method in overweight or obese adults (body mass index ⩾25 kg/m2) 18–65 years of age. Study exclusion criteria included enrolment of non-consecutive or <100 participants, use of an intervention that was not approved for clinical use, and follow up <2 years. (1 year of follow up was allowed for pharmacological studies because only 4 studies were identified with follow up ⩾2 y).
weight loss efficacy defined by absolute weight loss and the proportion patients with ⩾5% weight loss. …