Evid Based Nurs 9:45 doi:10.1136/ebn.9.2.45
  • Treatment

Paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and combination treatment did not differ for pain relief after musculoskeletal injury

 Q What is the relative effectiveness of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen), oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and combination treatment for acute pain relief after musculoskeletal injury?



randomised placebo controlled trial.


unclear concealment.


blinded (patients, healthcare providers, and outcome assessors).

GraphicFollow up period:

5–8 days after initial presentation. Pain was assessed up to 3 days.


emergency department (ED) of a university teaching hospital in Hong Kong.


300 patients ⩾16 years of age (mean age 37 y, 59% men) who presented to the ED with a painful acute limb injury. Exclusion criteria were substance abuse; dementia; indigestion; peptic ulceration or haemorrhage; recent anticoagulation; pregnancy; adverse reactions to study drugs; renal or cardiac failure; hepatic problems; rectal bleeding; chronic NSAID consumption; asthma; chronic obstructive airways disease; chronic pain syndromes; previous analgesia for the same injury; or physical, visual, or cognitive impairment.


oral …