Evid Based Nurs 8:121 doi:10.1136/ebn.8.4.121
  • Assessment (screening or diagnosis)

Review: fever and cough are the most accurate single tests for diagnosing influenza

 Q In patients with influenza-like illnesses, what is the accuracy of clinical signs and symptoms for diagnosing influenza?


GraphicData sources:

Medline (1966 to September 2004) and bibliographies of relevant articles.

GraphicStudy selection and assessment:

published studies on the assessment of clinical signs and symptoms as predictors of influenza; prospective cohort, randomised controlled trial, or meta-analysis study designs; ⩾1 outcome being influenza type A or B infection; and independent blinded comparison of signs or symptoms with a criterion standard in consecutive patients who might have influenza. Quality assessment criteria included study design and validity of criterion standard.


likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) of clinical signs and symptoms. The DOR was calculated as the odds of signs or symptoms …