|Number of RCTs showing improvement/total number of RCTs measuring outcome|
|Phyto-oestrogen||Number of RCTs (n)||Hot flush frequency||Menopausal symptoms|
|*RCTs = randomised controlled trials. Mean study duration was 17 weeks.|
|†Improvement in some subscales (vaginal dryness [1 RCT], hot flush severity [2 RCTs], and oestrogenic symptoms [1 RCT]).|
|‡Improvement in Kupperman index score (1 RCT), hot flushes and night sweats (1 RCT), 12 of 15 domains of a symptom questionnaire (1 RCT), and hot flush rate and symptom scores (no statistical comparison) (1 RCT).|
|Soy foods, beverages, or powders||11 (1094)||1/8||2/8†|
|Soy extracts||9 (854)||2/6||4/5‡|
|Red clover extracts||5 (400)||2/5||0/5|
Review: plant based oestrogens do not relieve hot flushes or other menopausal symptoms
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