Evid Based Nurs 8:82 doi:10.1136/ebn.8.3.82
  • Treatment

Review: high dose vitamin E supplementation is associated with increased all cause mortality

 Q Does vitamin E supplementation increase all cause mortality? Does a dose-response relation exist between vitamin E and all cause mortality?


GraphicData sources:

Medline (1966 to August 2004), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and personal files of the investigators.

GraphicStudy selection and assessment:

randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared vitamin E supplementation (alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals) with a control or placebo group in men or non-pregnant women, study duration and follow up were >1 year, and ⩾10 deaths occurred.


all cause mortality.


19 RCTs (n = 135 967, mean age range 47–84 y) met the selection criteria. 9 RCTs evaluated vitamin E alone, and 10 combined vitamin E with other vitamins or minerals. 16 RCTs were placebo …

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